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Dental Dictionary

A-B

Abrasion
Tooth wear caused by forces other than chewing such as holding objects between the teeth or improper brushing.
 
Alveolar Bone
The part of the jaw that surround the roots of the teeth

Amalgam
An alloy used in direct dental restorations.

Analgesia
Loss of pain sensations without loss of consciousness.

Anesthesia Local Anesthesia:
The loss of pain sensation over a specific area of the anatomy without loss of consciousness.

Apicoectomy
Removal of the tip of a tooth root.

Benign
The mild character of an illness or the non-malignant character of a neoplasm

Bleaching
A cosmetic dental procedure that whitens the teeth using a bleaching solution.

Bonding
A composite resin applied to a tooth to change its shape and/or color. Bonding also refers to how a filling, orthodontic appliance or some fixed partial dentures are attached to teeth.

Bruxism
Constant grinding or clenching of teeth during the day or while asleep

C-Ç

Calculus
Hard deposit of mineralized material adhering to crowns and/or roots of teeth.

Canal
A relatively narrow tubular passage or channel. Root Canal: Space inside the root portion of a tooth containing pulp tissue.

Cariogenic 
Promotes tooth decay.

Caries
Commonly used term for tooth decay.

Cavity 
Decay in tooth caused by caries; also referred to as carious lesion.

Cleft Lip 
Birth defect in which one or more fissures form in the upper lip, which takes place while the fetus is growing.

Cleft Palate 
Congenital deformity resulting in lack of fusion of the soft and/or hard palate, either partial or complete.

Clenching
The clamping and pressing of the jaws and teeth together in centric occlusion, frequently associated with psychological stress or physical effort.

Composite 
A dental restorative material made up of disparate or separate parts (e.g. resin and quartz particles).

Conscious Sedation 
A state in which patients are awake and can breathe and swallow on their own but are less aware of what is taking place.

Crown 
Anatomical Crown: That portion of tooth normally covered by, and including, enamel;

D-E

Debridement
Removing foreign matter or dead tissue.

Decay 
The lay term for carious lesions in a tooth; decomposition of tooth structure.

Dental Prophylaxis
Scaling and polishing procedure performed to remove coronal plaque, calculus, and stains.

Dental Prosthesis 
An artificial device that replaces one or more missing teeth.

Dental Specialist
A dentist who has received postgraduate training in one of the recognized dental specialties.
• DDS 
• DMD

Dentin
That part of the tooth that is beneath enamel and cementum. 

Dentition
The teeth in the dental arch. 
• Permanent Dentition
Refers to the permanent teeth in the dental arch. 
• Deciduous Dentition
Refers to the deciduous or primary teeth in the dental arch.

Denture
An artificial substitute for natural teeth and adjacent tissues.

Denture Base
The part of the denture that holds the artificial teeth and fits over the gums.

Dry Socket
Localized inflammation of the tooth socket following extraction due to infection or loss of blood clot; osteitis.

Edentulous
Toothless

Enamel
Hard calcified tissue covering dentin of the crown of tooth.

Endodontist
A dental specialist who limits his/her practice to treating disease and injuries of the pulp and associated periradicular conditions.

Erosion
Wearing down of tooth structure, caused by chemicals (acids).

Eruption 
When a tooth emerges or pushes through the gums.

Excision
Surgical removal of bone or tissue.

Extraction
The process or act of removing a tooth or tooth parts.

F-G

Filling
A lay term used for the restoring of lost tooth structure by using materials such as metal, alloy, plastic or porcelain.

Fixed Appliances 
Orthodontic devices, commonly known as braces, that are bonded to the teeth to produce different tooth movements to help reposition teeth for orthodontic therapy.
 
Fixed Partial Denture
A fixed partial denture is a prosthetic replacement of one or more missing teeth cemented or attached to the abutment teeth or implant abutments adjacent to the space.

Fracture
The breaking of a part, especially of a bony structure; breaking of a tooth.

Full-Mouth X-Rays
A combination of 14 or more periapical and 4 bitewing films of the back teeth. This series of x-rays reveals all the teeth (their crowns and roots) and the alveolar bone around them.

General Anesthesia
A deep level of sedation in which patients lose consciousness, feel no pain, and have no memory of what is taking place around them. 
 
Gingiva
 
Soft tissues overlying the crowns of unerupted teeth and encircling the necks of those that have erupted.

Gingival Hyperplasia
An overgrowth of gingival tissues.

Gingivitis
Inflammation of gingival tissue without loss of connective tissue.
 
Gingivectomy
The excision or removal of gingiva.

Gingivoplasty
Surgical procedure to reshape gingiva.

Graft
A piece of tissue or alloplastic material placed in contact with tissue to repair a defect or supplement a deficiency.

H-I

Halitosis
It means bad breath.

Hipersensitivite/Aşırı hassaslık
Hot, cold, chemicals, mechanical or osmotic (sweet or savory) when given stimulants in contact with the teeth and the reaction in the form of sudden sharp pain.

Hareketli Protez
Removable prosthesis that fills the place of the missing tooth

Implantlar 
Where incomplete metal tooth root is placed in the jaw teeth. It is then placed on the artificial dental implant to replace missing teeth

İ-J

Jaw
A common name for either the maxilla or the mandible.

K-L

Labial
Pertaining to or around the lip.
 
Lesion
An injury or wound; area of diseased tissue.

Lingual
Pertaining to or around the tongue; surface of the tooth directed toward the tongue; opposite of facial.

M-N

Malignant
Having the properties of dysplasia, invasion, and metastasis.
 
Malocclusion
Improper alignment of biting or chewing surfaces of upper and lower teeth.

Maxilla
The upper jaw.

Molar
Teeth posterior to the premolars (bicuspids) on either side of the jaw; grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces.

Mouthguard
Device that fits over the teeth to prevent injury to the teeth, mouth or lips. May also refer to a device that prevents tooth grinding or treats temporomandibular disorders.

Mucous Membrane
Lining of the oral cavity as well as other canals and cavities of the body; also called “mucosa.”

O-Ö

Obstructive Sleep Apnea
A disorder in which breathing stops for short periods of time during sleep.

Occlusal
Pertaining to the biting surfaces of the premolar and molar teeth or contacting surfaces of opposing teeth or opposing occlusion rims.

Occlusion
Any contact between biting or chewing surfaces of maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) teeth.

Onlay
An indirect restoration made outside the oral cavity that overlays a cusp or cusps of the tooth, which is then luted to the tooth.

Oral
Pertaining to the mouth.

Oral And Maxillofacial Surgeon
A dental specialist whose practice is limited to the diagnosis, surgical and adjunctive treatment of diseases, injuries, deformities, defects and esthetic aspects of the oral and maxillofacial regions.

Oral Mucosa
The pink-red tissues that line the mouth.

Orthodontist
A dental specialist whose practice is limited to the interception and treatment of malocclusion of the teeth and their surrounding structures.

Orthognathic Surgery
Surgery performed to correct facial imbalances caused by abnormalities of the jaw bones

Osseointegration
The process by which bone heals around an implant.

Osteoplasty
Surgical procedure that modifies the configuration of bone.

Osteotomy
Surgical cutting of bone.

Overdenture
A removable prosthetic device that overlies and may be supported by retained tooth roots or implants.

P-R

Palate
The hard and soft tissues forming the roof of the mouth that separates the oral and nasal cavities.

Palliative
Action that relieves pain but is not curative.

Partial Denture
Usually refers to a prosthetic device that replaces missing teeth; see Fixed Partial Denture or Removable Partial Denture.

Parotid Glands
Major salivary glands located in front of and below the ears.

Patient
An individual who has established a professional relationship with a dentist for the delivery of dental health care. For matters relating to communication of information and consent, this term includes the patient’s parent, caretaker, guardian, or other individual as appropriate under state law and the circumstances of the case.

Pediatric Dentist
A dental specialist whose practice is limited to treatment of children from birth through adolescence; formerly known as a pedodontist.
 
Pedodontist
See Pediatric Dentist.
 
Pellicle
A thin nonbacterial film from saliva that covers the teeth.

Periapical X-Ray
An x-ray that shows several entire teeth (crowns and roots) and includes a small amount of the periapical bone (surrounding the root tips).

Periodontal
Pertaining to the supporting and surrounding tissues of the teeth.

Periodontal Abscess
An infection in the gum pocket that can destroy hard and soft tissues.
 
Periodontal Disease
PInflammatory process of the gingival tissues and/or periodontal membrane of the teeth, resulting in an abnormally deep gingival sulcus, possibly producing periodontal pockets and loss of supporting alveolar bone.
 
Periodontal Pocket
Pathologically deepened gingival sulcus; a feature of periodontal disease.

Periodontist
A dental specialist whose practice is limited to the treatment of diseases of the supporting and surrounding tissues of the teeth.

Periodontitis
Inflammation and loss of the connective tissue of the supporting or surrounding structure of teeth with loss of attachment.

Plaque
A soft sticky substance that accumulates on teeth composed largely of bacteria and bacterial derivatives.

Post
An elongated projection fitted and cemented within the prepared root canal, serving to strengthen and retain restorative material and/or a crown restoration.
 
Posterior
Refers to teeth and tissues towards the back of the mouth (distal to the canines): maxillary and mandibular premolars and molars.

Radiograph
An image produced by projecting radiation, as x-rays, on photographic film. Commonly called x-ray.
 
Ranula

A cyst that can develop under the tongue on the floor of the mouth.

Rebase
To replace the denture base.

Reline
To resurface the side of the denture that is in contact with the soft tissues of the mouth to make it fit more securely.

Removable Appliance
Removable orthodontic appliances used to effect simple tipping movements of one tooth or several.

Removable Partial Denture
A removable partial denture (removable bridge) is a prosthetic replacement of one or more missing teeth that can be removed by the patient.

Resorb
To dissolve

Retainer
• Orthodontic Retainer: Appliance to stabilize teeth following orthodontic treatment.

Root
The anatomic portion of the tooth that is covered by cementum and is located in the alveolus (socket) where it is attached by the periodontal apparatus; radicular portion of tooth.

Root Canal
The portion of the pulp cavity inside the root of a tooth; the chamber within the root of the tooth that contains the pulp.

Root Canal Therapy
The treatment of disease and injuries of the pulp and associated periradicular conditions.

Root Caries
Tooth decay that forms on the roots.

Root Planing
A procedure designed to remove microbial flora, bacterial toxins, calculus, and diseased cementum or dentin on the root surfaces and in the pocket.

S-T

Scaling
Removal of plaque, calculus, and stain from teeth.
 
Sealants
Plastic resin placed on the biting surfaces of molars to prevent bacteria from attacking the enamel and causing caries.

Sjogren’s Syndrome
n autoimmune disorder (mostly affecting older women) that is characterized by partial or complete cessation of saliva and tears. It can be associated with rheumatic disease, such as rheumatic arthritis, lupus, or scleroderma.
 
Splint
A device used to support, protect, or immobilize oral structures that have been loosened, replanted, fractured or traumatized. Also refers to devices used in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders.

Stomatitis 
Inflammation of the membranes in the mouth.

Sublingual Glands
Major salivary glands located in the mucosa on the floor of the mouth.
 
Submandibular Glands
DWalnut-sized major salivary glands located beneath the tongue.
 
Suture
Stitch used to repair incision or wound.

Temporary Removable Denture
An interim prosthesis designed for use over limited period of time.

Temporomandibular (TMJ)
The connecting hinge mechanism between the base of the skull (temporal bone) and the lower jaw (mandible).
 
Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction
bnormal functioning of temporomandibular joint; also refers to symptoms arising in other areas secondary to the dysfunction.

Torus
A bony elevation or protuberance of bone.

U-Ü

Unerupted
Tooth/teeth that have not penetrated into the oral cavity

V-X

Veneer
In the construction of crowns or pontics, a layer of tooth-colored material, usually, but not limited to, composite, porcelain, ceramic or acrylic resin, attached to the surface by direct fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention; also refers to a restoration that is luted to the facial surface of a tooth.

Xerostomia
Decreased salivary secretion that produces a dry and sometimes burning sensation of the oral mucosa and/or cervical caries.

X-Ray
Radiograph.

Y-Z

Zirconia
A special element is used for bridges and crowns.