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Dental Implants

Crowns and conventional bridges or dentures may not be your only options when replacing missing teeth. For some people, dental implants offer a smile that looks and feels very natural. Surgically placed below the gums over a series of appointments, implants fuse to the jawbone and serve as a base for individual replacement teeth, bridges or a denture.

Implants offer stability because they fuse to your bone. Integration of the implants into your jaw also helps your replacement teeth feel more natural and some people also find the secure fit more comfortable than conventional substitutes.

Candidates for dental implants need to have healthy gums and adequate bone to support the implant. A thorough evaluation by your dentist will help determine whether you are a good candidate for dental implants.


 

WHAT IS INVOLVED IN PLACING IMPLANTS?
First, surgery is performed to place the anchor. Surgery can take up to several hours, and up to six months may be required for the bone to grow around the anchor and firmly hold it in place. Some implants require a second surgery in which a post is attached to connect the anchor to the replacement teeth. With other implants, the anchor and post are already attached and are placed at the same time.

After the gums have had several weeks to heal, the next step is begun. The artificial teeth are made and fitted to the post portion of the anchor. Because several fittings may be required, this step can take one to two months to complete.

Implant surgery can be done either in a dental office or in a hospital, depending upon a number of factors. A local anesthetic is used. Usually pain medications and, when necessary, antibiotics are prescribed. Your dentist will give you instructions on diet and oral hygiene.

FAST&FİXED (1 HARD DAY THREAD)

FAST&FİXED (1 HARD DAY THREAD )

 

What are Dental Implants?

The implant is an artificial tooth root placed into the jawbone in order to ensure the function and aesthetics of the missing teeth again. Traditional coating is a much safer form of alternative therapy based on functional bridges and dentures.
 

Implant What Are the Benefits?

Implant treatment is a comfortable, robust and reliable applications. Implants, prosthesis on, they form a natural structure taking the place of real teeth. Missing teeth is completed, it is intact healthy teeth. They are much more durable than any prosthesis.
 

Treatment Duration Implant How Much?

Implant operations even today it is possible to do in just 10 minutes. Dental and total time varies depending on how the operation will depend on your bone structure. In general, the process is finished the next two months from the first operation. You may resume your normal daily life with a temporary prosthesis during this time.
 

One Missing Teeth

Traditional bridge to the teeth adjacent to the space next to the most important advantage of other aesthetic advantages when compared with the treatment of single dental implant is restoring lost tooth without any intervention. Single-tooth implants are not linked to neighboring teeth, so it can be passed between the floss and can be perfectly clean as natural teeth. Traditional treatment erodes the bridge to be used as a foot space adjacent teeth and prune the life of the female players in the long run. In addition, the teeth are interdependent and can not pass the bridge between traditional dental floss.
 

Multiple Missing Teeth

In cases where more than one tooth is missing, alternative practices to address the lack of implant, prosthetic dentures and bridge applications. This will cause trauma to the surrounding tissue in the absolute. For this reason the case to allow the implant is an application of anatomical structures indispensable.
 

Completely toothless jaw

Completely in the treatment of edentulous jaws offers removable prostheses and implant dentistry options. In both options, it is obvious advantage over the more conventional dentures. Implant supported dentures in the mouth can stand still in any case. Chewing forces prevented the meltdown that broke the jaw bone, is ensured in the long-term stability of the prosthesis into the mouth. Based on the prosthetic implant causing pain pressure points occur. The palate remains free from prosthesis material.

In this way it is possible to enjoy eating to taste. Fully most attractive solution for edentulous jaws is a screwed series of dental implants. A line is terminated in compliance with the teeth gums, fixed directly to the implant.

Dental Surgery

WISDOM TEETH
Wisdom teeth are a valuable asset to the mouth when they are healthy and properly positioned. Often, however, problems that require their removal develop. When the jaw isn't large enough to accommodate wisdom teeth, they can become impacted (unable to come in or misaligned). Wisdom teeth may grow sideways, emerge only part way from the gum or remain beneath the gum and bone, trapped
 

Extraction of wisdom teeth is generally recommended when:
• Wisdom teeth only partially erupt. This leaves an opening for bacteria to enter around the tooth and cause an infection. Pain, swelling, jaw stiffness and general illness can result. 
• There is a chance that poorly aligned wisdom teeth will damage adjacent teeth. 
• A cyst (fluid-filled sac) forms, destroying surrounding structures such as bone or tooth roots. Patients should ask the dentist about the health and positioning of their wisdom teeth. The dentist may make a recommendation for removal or send the patient to an oral surgeon for further evaluation.


What should you expect when you have your wisdom teeth extracted?

A great deal of the degree of difficulty associated removing a wisdom tooth will have to do with the manner in which it is positioned in the patient's jawbone. In general, the more normal the alignment of the wisdom tooth and the further through the gums it has been able to erupt, the less involved the extraction and its subsequent healing process will be.
Another factor associated with the degree of difficulty of removing a wisdom tooth will have to do with the tooth's anatomy. Wisdom teeth are multi rooted teeth. Lower wisdom teeth typically have two roots whereas upper wisdom teeth usually have three. There can be quite a bit of variation in the way a tooth's roots have formed. In some cases each of a wisdom tooth's roots will be quite distinct and separate. In other cases the tooth's roots may have fused together or taken on an irregular shape when forming. These variations in anatomy will affect the relative degree of difficulty associated with a particular wisdom tooth extraction. 
Don't necessarily expect the worst. Some wisdom teeth will be no more difficult for your dentist to extract than any other tooth. As part of your pre extraction examination your dentist should be able to give you an idea of what to expect, both during the extraction procedure and also in regards to healing.
If there is an active infection associated with a wisdom tooth (such as pericoronitis) a dentist will usually delay the timing of the extraction. In these instances your dentist will usually prescribe a course of antibiotics for you to take, typically for seven days or so. The antibiotics will diminish the amount of infection that is present at the time of the extraction, thus allowing both the extraction and the subsequent healing process to go more smoothly.
In order to extract a wisdom tooth a dentist must first gain access to it. If the tooth is underneath the gums and still totally encased in bone then the dentist will first need to create a gum tissue "flap" and then remove a portion of the bone that lies over the tooth. In order to minimize the total amount of bone that must be removed in order to get a tooth out, a dentist will often "section" a wisdom tooth into parts during the extraction process. Because each part is smaller than the tooth as a whole, each can be removed through a smaller opening in the bone.



Orthodontics

What is Orthodontics?
Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry that corrects teeth and jaws that are positioned improperly.
Crooked teeth and teeth that do not fit together correctly are harder to keep clean, are at risk of being lost early due to tooth decay and periodontal disease, and cause extra stress on the chewing muscles that can lead to headaches, TMJ syndrome and neck, shoulder and back pain. Teeth that are crooked or not in the right place can also detract from one's appearance.
The benefits of orthodontic treatment include a healthier mouth, a more pleasing appearance, and teeth that are more likely to last a lifetime.
A specialist in this field is called an orthodontist. Orthodontists receive two or more years of education beyond their four years in dental school in an ADA-approved orthodontic training program.

How do I Know if I Need Orthodontics? 
Only your dentist or orthodontist can determine whether you can benefit from orthodontics. Based on diagnostic tools that include a full medical and dental health history, a clinical exam, plaster models of your teeth, and special X-rays and photographs, an orthodontist or dentist can decide whether orthodontics are recommended, and develop a treatment plan that's right for you.
If you have any of the following, you may be a candidate for orthodontic treatment:
• Overbite, sometimes called "buck teeth" — where the upper front teeth lie too far forward (stick out) over the lower teeth
• Underbite — a "bulldog" appearance where the lower teeth are too far forward or the upper teeth too far back 
• Crossbite — when the upper teeth do not come down slightly in front of the lower teeth when biting together normally
• Open bite — space between the biting surfaces of the front and/or side teeth when the back teeth bite together 
• Misplaced midline— when the center of your upper front teeth does not line up with the center of your lower front teeth
• Spacing — gaps, or spaces, between the teeth as a result of missing teeth or teeth that do not "fill up" the mouth 
• Crowding — when there are too many teeth for the dental ridge to accommodate

How Does Orthodontic Treatment Work?
Many different types of appliances, both fixed and removable, are used to help move teeth, retrain muscles and affect the growth of the jaws. These appliances work by placing gentle pressure on the teeth and jaws. The severity of your problem will determine which orthodontic approach is likely to be the most effective.

What care is recommended during orthodontic treatment?
As with any dental treatment, the more a child cooperates, the better the results. First, careful brushing and flossing keep the appliance and your child's health in top shape. (Removable appliances should be brushed each time the teeth are brushed.) Second, regular dental check-ups -- besides orthodontic appointments -- protect your child from tooth decay and gum disease. Third, prompt contact with your pediatric dentist when an appliance breaks will keep orthodontic treatment on-time and on-track.
 

Early Orthodontic Treatments


EARLY ORTHODONTİC TREATMENTS

It's never too early to keep an eye on your child's oral development. Your pediatric dentist can identify malocclusion -- crowded or crooked teeth or bite problems -- and actively intervene to guide the teeth as they emerge in the mouth.Orthodontic treatment early can prevent more extensive treatment later.
What causes crowded teeth and other orthodontic problems? 
A: Malocclusion is often inherited. Orthodontic problems also are caused by dental injuries, the early loss of primary teeth or such habits a thumb sucking, fingernail biting, or lip biting. Your pediatric dentist can help your child avoid oral habits that may create orthodontic problems. 
Why is early orthodontic care important?
A:
 Early orthodontics can enhance your child's smile, but the benefits far surpass appearance. Pediatric orthodontics can straighten crooked teeth, guide erupting teeth into position, correct bite problems, even prevent the need for tooth extractions. Straight teeth are easier to keep clean and less susceptible to tooth decay and gum disease.
What is early orthodontic treatment like?
 
A: Different orthodontic appliances work in different ways to benefit your child's dental health. Some are fixed; others are removable. Your pediatric dentist will explain which appliance is best for your child, what the treatment can do, and how long it will take.

Adult Orthodontics


ADULT ORTHODONTİCS
The number of adults choosing orthodontics is on the rise. In fact, today one out of every four orthodontic patients is an adult.
    Regardless of a person's age, orthodontic treatment is usually a change for the better. The mechanics involved in the movement of teeth are essentially the same in adults as in children. Gaps between teeth, crowding, protruding front teeth and teeth in abnormal positions are problems that may be corrected in the adult by orthodontic treatment. However, because an adult's facial bones are no longer growing, certain conditions cannot be resolved with braces alone. Sometimes, surgery is required to obtain the correct result. The health of teeth, gums and supporting bone, as well as jaw relationships, are key factors in determining the prospects of improving one's appearance through orthodontic treatment.
    Contrary to popular belief, wearing braces will not interfere with an adult lifestyle. Patients can make business presentations, sing, play a musical instrument, dine out-and, of course, kiss! The biggest inconvenience, generally, is working regular visits to the orthodontist into an adult's busy schedule.

ORTHODONTICS AND ITS ROLE IN TREATING HEALTH PROBLEMS 
   
Health concerns are often the primary consideration for adult treatment. Crooked teeth and bad bites may seriously affect oral health. Orthodontic treatment might help prevent many serious potential problems such as tooth decay, gum disease and eventual tooth loss.
    One of the most prevalent adult orthodontic problems is teeth that are too crowded. These teeth are extremely difficult to clean, making them more prone to decay, even if good oral hygiene is practiced. Conversely, spaces can also be a problem, especially if the early loss or extraction of teeth causes healthy teeth to tip into open spaces. Deterioration of the supporting bone may occur, causing teeth to become loose.
    Protruding front teeth, in addition to being unattractive, do not meet properly during chewing. This can cause abnormal wear of tooth surfaces, as well as excess stress on supporting bone and gum tissue. The stress on supporting tissues might contribute to gum disease and possibly lead to the loss of teeth.
    Orthodontic problems are not always confined to the mouth. Disorders of the temporomandibular joints, which connect the lower jaw to the skull, may be one of the reasons why millions of people suffer from chronic headaches, earaches and facial pain. Though temporomandibular disorders (TMD) may have a variety of causes, treatment sometimes may include procedures performed by an orthodontist. 

Laser Dentistry

Laser dentistry can be a precise and effective way to perform many dental procedures. The potential for laser dentistry to improve dental procedures rests in the dentist’s ability to control power output and the duration of exposure on the tissue (whether gum or tooth structure), allowing for treatment of a highly specific area of focus without damaging surrounding tissues
If you consider yourself somewhat of an anxious dental patient and are seeking extreme safety and comfort, you might consider looking for dentists who have incorporated laser dentistry techniques into their practices and treatments.
Benefits of Laser Dentistry?
Here are some of the major benefits associated with laser dentistry:
• Procedures performed using soft tissue dental lasers may not require sutures (stitches). 
• Certain laser dentistry procedures do not require anesthesia. 
• Laser dentistry minimizes bleeding because the high-energy light beam aids in the clotting (coagulation) of exposed blood vessels, thus inhibiting blood loss. 
• Bacterial infections are minimized because the high-energy beam sterilizes the area being worked on. 
• Damage to surrounding tissue is minimized. 
• Wounds heal faster and tissues can be regenerated.

Application of Laser Dentistry


The application of lasers in dentistry opens the door for dentists to perform a wide variety of dental procedures they otherwise may not be capable of performing. Dentists using lasers in dentistry have become adept at incorporating the state-of-the-art precision technology into a number of common and not-so-common procedures.

Hard Tissue (Tooth) Laser Dentistry Procedures

• Cavity Detector: Low intensity soft tissue dental lasers may be used for the early detection of cavities by providing a reading of the by-products produced by tooth decay.
• Dental Fillings/Tooth Preparation: Hard tissue dental lasers may eliminate the need for a local anesthetic injection and the traditional turbine dental drill. Lasers used in dental filling procedures are capable of killing bacteria located in a cavity, potentially leading to improved long term tooth restorations. However, dental lasers are not appropriate for the replacement of amalgam fillings, onlays or crowns.
• Tooth Sensitivity: Dental lasers may be used to seal tubules (located on the root of the tooth) that are responsible for hot and cold tooth sensitivity.

Soft Tissue (Gum) Laser Dentistry Procedures


• Crown Lengthening: Dental lasers can reshape gum tissue (soft tissue laser) and bone (hard tissue laser) to expose healthier tooth structure. Referred to as crown lengthening, such reshaping provides a stronger foundation for the placement of restorations. 
• Gummy Smile: Dental lasers can reshape gum tissue to expose healthy tooth structure and improve the appearance of a gummy smile. 
• Muscle Attachment (Frenula): A laser frenectomy is an ideal treatment option for children who are tongue tied (restricted or tight frenulum) and babies unable to breast feed adequately due to limited tongue movement. A laser frenectomy may also help to eliminate speech impediments. 
 Soft Tissue Folds (Epulis): Dental lasers may be used for the painless and suture-free removal of soft tissue folds often caused by ill-fitting dentures. 

Other Laser Dentistry Applications


• Viewing Tooth and Gum Tissues: Optical Coherence Tomography is a safer way to see inside tooth and gums in real time. 
• Benign Tumors: Dental lasers may be used for the painless and suture-free removal of benign tumors from the gums, palate, sides of cheeks and lips. 
• Cold Sores: Low intensity dental lasers reduce pain associated with cold sores and minimize healing time. 
• Nerve Regeneration: Photobiomodulation can be used to regenerate damaged nerves, blood vessels and scars. 
• Sleep Apnea: In cases where sleep apnea is a result of a tissue overgrowth in areas of the throat (which sometimes occurs with age), a laser assisted uvuloplasty or laser assisted uvula palatoplasty (LAUP) procedure can be performed to reshape the throat and relieve the correlating breathing problems associated with sleep apnea. 
• Teeth Whitening: Low intensity soft tissue dental lasers may be used to speed up the bleaching process associated with teeth whitening. 
• Temporomandibular Joint Treatment: Dental lasers may be used to quickly reduce pain and inflammation of the temporomandibular jaw joint. 
Lasers represent an innovative and more precise technology for specific hard and soft tissue applications.

Cosmetic Denistry
Bleaching

 Everybody loves a bright white smile, and there are a variety of products and procedures available to help you improve the look of yours. . 
  Many people are satisfied with the sparkle they get from brushing twice daily with a fluoride-containing toothpaste, cleaning between their teeth once a day and the regular cleanings at your dentist’s office. If you decide you would like to go beyond this to make your smile look brighter, you should investigate all of your options.
  You can take several approaches to whiten your smile:
• In-office bleaching; 
• At-home bleaching; 

What is in-office bleaching?
    If you are a candidate for bleaching, your dentist may suggest a procedure that can be done in his or her office. This procedure is called chairside bleaching and may require more than one office visit. Each visit may take from 30 minutes to one hour.
    During chairside bleaching, the dentist will apply either a protective gel to your gums or a rubber shield to protect the oral soft tissues. A bleaching agent is then applied to the teeth, and a special light may be used to enhance the action of the agent. Lasers have been used during tooth whitening procedures to enhance the action of the whitening agent.

What are at-home procedures and products?
   There are several types of products available for use at home, which can either be dispensed by your dentist or purchased over-the-counter.
   Bleaching solutions. These products contain peroxide(s), which actually bleach the tooth enamel. These products typically rely on percent carbamide peroxide as the bleaching agent, carbamide peroxide comes in several different concentrations (10%, 16%, 22%).
   Peroxide-containing whiteners typically come in a gel and are placed in a mouthguard. Usage regimens vary. Some products are used for about twice a day for 2 weeks, and others are intended for overnight use for 1-2 weeks. If you obtain the bleaching solution from your dentist, he or she can make a custom-fitted mouthguard for you that will fit your teeth precisely. Currently, only dentist-dispensed home-use 10% carbamide peroxide tray-applied gels carry the ADA Seal.
   You also may want to speak with your dentist should any side effects become bothersome. For example, teeth can become sensitive during the period when you are using the bleaching solution. In many cases, this sensitivity is temporary and should lessen once the treatment is finished. Some people also experience soft tissue irritation—either from a tray that doesn't fit properly or from solution that may come in contact with the tissues. If you have concerns about such side effects, you should discuss them with your dentist.

Dental Veneers

Dental veneers are custom-designed shells of tooth-like ceramic material that, when applied over the surface of a tooth, can cover worn tooth enamel, uneven tooth alignment or spacing and chips or cracks.
Dental veneers fall into the category of cosmetic dentistry because they create a bright, white smile with beautifully aligned, shapely teeth. Even better, the translucent ceramic quality of today's veneers provides a more natural look than what’s been available in the past.
Regardless of what causes unattractive teeth, dental veneers may solve most or even all of your cosmetic dental issues, including:
• Worn enamel: Over time, the thin, hard white substance covering your teeth (enamel) may become worn, dulled, and discolored. Such wear and discoloration may be natural or the result of a genetic predisposition; however, it is often a result of your habits (soft drink, tea, or coffee consumption, smoking, medication use, etc.).
• Wear and tear: Teeth naturally wear down as people age. Aged teeth are more likely to have chips, cracks or a generally uneven appearance. 
• Genetics: Certain people may be born with abnormal spacing between the teeth that grows wider as they age. 
• Uneven teeth: Uneven teeth can result from tooth grinding or general wear and tear. 
Porcelain Veneers and Composite Resin Veneers
The two most common materials used in the manufacture of dental veneers are composite resin and porcelain veneers. Both porcelain veneers and composite veneers can be fabricated by a dental technician in a dental laboratory; composite veneers can also be directly fabricated inside your mouth at the dental office.
Dental veneers that are indirectly fabricated — fabricated in a dental laboratory — are bonded to the teeth with various types of resin cement. Of the two options, porcelain veneers are longer lasting and more expensive.
When are Veneers Appropriate?
Bonding often serves as an inexpensive and effective restoration for small chips and cracks in the teeth. Such minor problems may be functionally and cosmetically repaired with a composite "white filling." A composite resin material is bonded to the tooth in order to fill in the chip or crack and better protect the surrounding tooth structure. But for more severe cases of dullness, wear, discoloration, mild chipping, cracking, spacing, or uneven teeth, dental veneers may be recommended as a more appropriate solution.

All Ceramic Crowns and Bridges
Zirkonyum Uygulamaları

Dental crowns, also known as “caps,” preserve the functionality of damaged teeth. Crowns may be used to protect a cracked tooth, restore functionality of a tooth with excessive decay, or replace a pre-existing crown. The purpose of a dental crown is to encase a needy tooth with a custom-designed material. Dentists today have a variety of conservative treatment options through which to restore teeth. If possible, these options should be explored and discussed before selecting the full coverage crown.

All-Ceramic Dentures
The predominant material choice for all-ceramic crowns today is either zirconia, or aluminous materials. They provide a metal-free esthetic option with a number of benefits.
By eliminating the need for the supportive metal core, an esthetic all-ceramic crown can be created with a reduced thickness of material. This makes them a more favorable treatment choice in areas with limited space. Additionally, the elimination of the metal core allows for light transmission through the porcelain for better optical, life-like properties and a higher level of esthetics. 
All-ceramic materials continue to evolve in strength and durability, but caution should still be exercised for areas of the mouth requiring heavy function. Continuing research is exploring the significant vulnerabilities of the porcelain systems in such areas.

Gum Esthetics

GINGIVECTOMY AND GINGIVOPLASTY

Gingivectomy is the surgical removal of gum tissue or gingiva. Gingivoplasty is the surgical reshaping of gum tissue around your teeth. These two procedures are performed by a periodontist. A periodontist is a dentist that specializes in treating gums and the other supporting structures around your teeth.
What is gingivectomy used for?
Gingivectomy was originally developed to treat periodontal disease but nowadays it is used more commonly for cosmetic procedures. You may have to remove your gum tissue for two reasons:
•    There are gaps or pockets that have formed between your teeth and your gums. These pockets will trap food particles, harbour colonies of bacteria, and make it difficult for you to clean. If the pockets only involve soft tissues then these gaps may be removed by simply trimming the gums through gingivectomy.
•    There is too much gum tissue for your teeth. Aside from cosmetic reasons, too much gum tissue for your teeth will make it hard for you to keep your mouth clean. In severe situations, this condition can interfere with the way you eat and the way you talk. Overgrowth in gum tissue is caused by certain anti-seizure medications. Sometimes, other drugs may cause it. On some occasions, there could be no cause at all.
 
What is gingivoplasty used for?
Reshaping your gums through gingivoplasty could make your gums look more natural. The gingivoplasty procedure could be used to correct asymmetrical gums, badly formed gums, diseased gums, genetically malformed gums, trauma, or for purely cosmetic purposes. Gingivoplasty is usually done alone although it can also be done after a gingivectomy or a gum graft. Gum grafts are additions of gum tissue to the gum line.
Gum contouring - for the "gummy smile"
Patients are often concerned that too much gum is showing when they smile or that their teeth look too short. This problem, commonly referred to as a “gummy smile”, can be easily remedied by gum reshaping or contouring.
Excess gum tissue is marked out by the dentist and then trimmed away using a special laser, which also cauterises (seals) blood vessels, and so minimises bleeding. 
After the procedure, the gum is left to heal. Results are immediate. In some cases where a large amount of gum tissue is removed, the healing process may take longer and it may be necessary to trim bone on the front of the tooth root to prevent regrowth of the gum tissue. The results are usually permanent and relatively inexpensive.

Smile Make Over
Gülüş Dizaynı

A smile makeover is the process of improving the appearance of the smile through one or more cosmetic dentistry procedures, such as dental veneers, composite bonding, dental implants and teeth whitening. 
Essentially, a smile makeover is something that you choose to have performed, while a full mouth reconstruction is something that you need to have performed.
Smile Makeover Considerations
A smile makeover takes into consideration your facial appearance, skin tone, hair color, teeth (color, width, length, shape and tooth display), gum tissue and lips to develop your ideal smile. Smile makeovers are performed for many reasons and customized according to your unique considerations.
What is it that you like or dislike about your smile or your teeth? Some aspects of your smile that your cosmetic dentist will review with you and that could be improved with a smile makeover include the following:
Tooth Color: Silver or amalgam dental fillings can be replaced with natural, tooth-colored composite restorations, while teeth whitening can improve the color of stained or dulled teeth. Tooth color and shading are important considerations during the evaluation of and preparation for various procedures, including porcelain veneers, crowns, bridges, composite bonding and dental implants.
 When considering the color of your teeth, keep in mind that dark or discolored teeth may suggest an aged mouth. A well-shaped smile comprised of bright, white teeth lends to a youthful appearance. The shade your dentist selects for teeth whitening and veneers is carefully evaluated with special consideration given to the tone and color of your face and hair. Cosmetic dentists are skilled at finding the right balance between providing you with a brighter, whiter smile and maintaining a natural tooth color.
Alignment and Spacing: Teeth that are crooked, overlapping or have gaps between them can be straightened and aligned when necessary through orthodontics or Invisalign and improved with veneers. 
Missing Teeth: One or more missing teeth can negatively affect the appearance of your smile — as well as affect your bite and increase your risk for tooth decay — making replacement an integral part of oral health and facial esthetics. Missing teeth can be replaced by dental implants, bridges or partial dentures. 
Harmony and Balance: Uneven, chipped and cracked teeth can be cosmetically bonded for an improved appearance, and a gummy smile can be re-contoured to help improve the overall look of the smile. 
Fuller Lips, Smile and Cheeks: An unshapely or aging face can be improved or rejuvenated with certain procedures in the smile makeover category, including orthodontics and/or oral maxillofacial surgery. A cosmetic dentist will work closely with you to develop a treatment plan designed to achieve exactly what you want from your makeover. This treatment plan may consist of many cosmetic and functionally restorative procedures, potentially including teeth whitening, composite bonding, veneers, dental crowns, orthodontics (braces), oral maxillofacial surgery and gummy smile reduction.

Congenital Absence of Teeth

   The etiology of congenital absence of teeth is believed to be involved in heredity or developmental anomalies. It can be isolated or as part of a syndrome. There are a number of options available to restore space generated by missing teeth. Dental treatment can vary depending on the severity of the disease and generally requires a multidisciplinary approach. Treatment options include orthodontic therapy, implants, adhesive techniques, and removable prosthesis.

Pediactric Dentistry

A child's primary teeth, sometimes called "baby teeth," are as important as the permanent adult teeth. Primary teeth typically begin to appear when a baby is between age six months and one year. Primary teeth help children chew and speak. They also hold space in the jaws for permanent teeth that are developing under the gums. The ADA recommends that a dentist examine a child within six months of the eruption of the first tooth and no later than the first birthday. A dental visit at an early age is a "well baby checkup" for the teeth. Besides checking for tooth decay and other problems, the dentist can demonstrate how to clean the child's teeth properly and how to evaluate any adverse habits such as thumbsucking.

Taking Care of Your Child's Teeth
Taking good care of your child's teeth is important because even "baby" teeth help your child chew food and speak clearly. Baby teeth also hold space so permanent teeth can grow in straight. If you start your child off with good dental habits, your child will find it easier to keep those good habits forever.

How should I care for my child's teeth?
You should start caring for your child's gums and teeth at birth. Gently wipe your baby's gums with a soft, wet cloth after each feeding. When baby teeth appear, start cleaning them with a soft, child-sized toothbrush twice a day. In children up to 4 years of age, use a small, pea-sized dab of children's fluoride toothpaste. It is important to use a small amount of toothpaste so your baby does not swallow too much of it. Swallowing too much fluoride toothpaste can cause spots on your child's teeth.

What is fluoride?

Fluoride helps make teeth strong and prevents tooth decay. If the water where you live does not have enough fluoride, your doctor may prescribe fluoride supplements (fluoride drops or pills). You would give these drops or pills every day, starting when your child is about 6 months old. Only give as much as the directions say to use, because too much fluoride can cause spots on your child's teeth. 
When should I start taking my child to the dentist?
Take your child for a first dental visit within six months of the first baby tooth and by no later than the first birthday. This gives the dentist a chance to look for early tooth problems and to talk to you about how to care for your baby's teeth. It also helps your child feel okay in the dentist's office.


 

   
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What is "baby-bottle" tooth decay?
Babies who go to bed with a bottle of milk, formula or juice are more likely to get tooth decay. Because the sugar in formula, milk or juice stays in contact with the teeth for a long time during the night, the teeth can decay quickly.
Here are some tips to avoid baby-bottle tooth decay:
•    Put your child to bed with a bottle of plain water, not milk or juice.
•    Stop nursing when your child is asleep or has stopped sucking on the bottle.
•    Try not to let your child walk around using a bottle of milk or juice as a pacifier.
•    Start to teach your child to drink from a cup at about 6 months of age. Plan to stop using a bottle by 12 to 14 months at the latest.
•    Don't dip your child's pacifier in honey or sugar.
 

Mixed dentition of a child's mouth

  Tooth Development
Teeth vary in size, shape and their location in the jaws. These differences enable teeth to work together to help you chew, speak and smile. They also help give your face its shape and form.

At birth people usually have 20 primary (baby) teeth, which often erupt about six months of age. They are then shed at various times throughout childhood. By age 21, all 32 of the permanent teeth have usually erupted.

Does anything help teething?

When teeth come through the gums, it can make your baby cross. The gum may be swollen where the tooth is coming in. You can ease the pain by rubbing the gums gently with your finger, letting your child chew on a teething ring or using a pacifier.

How does diet affect my child's teeth?
Healthy eating habits lead to healthy teeth. Give your child a variety of foods. Sweets (candy or cookies), starchy foods (crackers) and sticky foods (raisins) stay in the mouth longer, so they can easily cause tooth decay. If your child wants a snack between meals, offer fruits or vegetables. They're better for growing teeth.
Is thumb-sucking bad for my child's teeth?
It is normal for children to suck their thumbs, their fingers or pacifiers. Most children give up this habit on their own by the time they are 4 years old and do no harm to their teeth. If your child still has a sucking habit after age 4, tell your dentist. Your dentist can watch for problems as the teeth grow. In most children, there is no reason to worry about a sucking habit until the child is 5 or 6 years old, when the permanent teeth start to come in.


 

Dental Prothesis
Fıxed Brıdges And Crowns

CROWNS 
The crown of a tooth is the part which is visible in the mouth. An artificial crown completely covers a damaged tooth above the gum line and protects it. Crowns can also improve the appearance of misshapen or discoloured teeth. Crowns are made of metal or porcelain, or porcelain with metal inside for strength. The colour and shape can be matched to your own teeth.
The dentist shapes the tooth so that there is room for the artificial crown to fit over the top. Preparation time will depend on how damaged the tooth is and whether it needs to be built up with a filling first.
The tooth might have to be root-filled first - this is sometimes called 'removing the nerve'. The crown is sometimes held in place by a peg in the root canal if a lot of the tooth is missing.
Your dentist will use a soft mouldable material to make an exact 'impressions' of the tooth that is to be crowned and the nearby teeth. A dental technician uses the impressions to make the crown the exact height and size needed.
A temporary crown made of plastic or metal is put over the tooth until the permanent crown is made. You can chew on a temporary crown but it won't be as strong as the finished one.
When the crown is ready, the temporary one is removed and the permanent one put it its place. The dentist will make small adjustments to make sure you can bite comfortably.

FIXED BRIDGES
A bridge is one way replacing a missing tooth. It fixes a replacement tooth (or teeth) to the natural teeth on either side of the gap. Some bridges (like the one on the 3D model) have crowns at each end. Others are fixed to the surface of the teeth next to the gap.
Bridges are made of metal and porcelain or sometimes just porcelain. The teeth can be matched to the colour of your own teeth.
The teeth that will support the bridge are prepared to take the fixings and to make sure that the bridge is not too bulky.
An impression is taken of the teeth and any gaps, and the dental technician uses this to make the bridge. A plastic temporary bridge or temporary crown may be fitted in the meantime.
At your final visit, the dentist will check that the bridge fits, make any minor adjustments and then fix it permanently in place. Your dentist or hygienist will show you the best way of keeping your new bridge clean.
 

Dentures

Over time, people's teeth tend to naturally deteriorate. When a tooth has deteriorated substantially, it often needs to be extracted. And when multiple teeth are extracted, dentures may be the most appropriate solution. Dentures can create a natural and healthy looking set of teeth. In addition, a properly fitting set of dentures can greatly enhance your smile and sense of self-esteem.
 

Complete and Partial Dentures 
Many types of dentures exist, including complete and partial dentures. Complete dentures are used when few original teeth remain. The dentist begins by removing any remaining teeth so the dentures can be fitted. He or she then makes a mold of the gums and sends it to a dental lab where customized dentures are constructed. Patients are typically fitted with temporary dentures until the permanent set have returned from the laboratory. Partial dentures are prepared in much the same way as a complete set and are utilized when only a few teeth are missing.

Over Dentures 
If the roots of a patient's remaining teeth (the tissue and gums) are strong, the dentist may suggest over-dentures. Over-dentures fit on top of the remaining natural teeth in the mouth. With over-dentures, the remaining teeth are re sculpted and covered with metal caps to stop future decay. The advantage of over-dentures is that they do not have to be relined as frequently as a complete set of dentures because they cause less recession of the jawbone and gums. In addition, over-dentures create less occlusion (bite) problems than complete dentures.

Once Your Dentures Have Been Placed 
At first, your dentures will feel uncomfortable because the gums and tissue are not accustomed to being in contact with man-made relining material. Once placed, dentures should be worn continually for the first few days to reduce the amount of swelling that may occur in the mouth. This swelling typically subsides in two to three days. Until patients adjust to their new set of teeth, the dentures may feel loose and awkward while chewing food. Eating soft food may be necessary for the first few days. Reading aloud helps to overcome any speech impediments that may occur from the new dentures. Typically, lower dentures take longer to get used to than upper dentures. The underlying jawbone may take several months to completely heal and become accustomed to the dentures. Once this occurs, the dentist removes the dentures and creates a permanent lining for your teeth (a denture lining is the soft material that cushions the contact between the denture and the gum tissues).

The Life of your Dentures 
Although dentures typically last about five years, they can last up to 25 years with proper care and cleaning. Dentures should be cleaned daily with a normal or specially-made denture toothpaste. Once the swelling has reduced, it is advisable to leave one or both dentures out at night to allow the gum tissues to breathe. In order to prevent dentures from warping, they should be left in water overnight. Over time, the lining of the dentures may change, owing to the wear and tear of daily use. In the case of tissue / bone shrinkage, worn down teeth, or breakage, dentures may come loose and need to be remade.

Root Canal Treatment

White (Composite) Fillings

Until recently, dentists filled and sealed cavities exclusively using a silver and mercury amalgam. Unfortunately, these fillings (or restorations) weaken teeth due to the large amount of the original tooth that has to be removed. Modern dentistry has increasingly turned to composite fillings as a strong, safe and more natural looking alternative. Composite fillings utilize a soft white plastic substance that includes a hardening agent.


Pros and Cons of Composite Fillings
The major advantage of these fillings is that they come in a range of shades that closely match the color of an individual's tooth. Due to the increased strength of modern composite material, they can now also be used in the back teeth. Unfortunately, composite fillings are twice as expensive as traditional restorations.

The Filling Procedures
During your initial visit to the dentist, he or she begins by anesthetizing the tooth and removing any remaining filling and / or decay. Once the tooth has been prepared, the dentist places the composite into the tooth, where it binds to the original surface. The process is typically performed in several layers, each layer being cured or hardened through exposure to a hardening light.

ROOT CANAL TREATMENT

 

In the past, injured or diseased teeth frequently had to be removed. Today, they often can be saved through endodontic treatment. Also known as a root canal treatment ,this procedure may be performed by a general dentist. More than one office visit usually is required.

PULP PARTICULARS

A root canal treatment generally involves the removal and replacement of a tooth’s pulp. The pulp is soft tissue containing blood vessels, nerves and connective tissues.

  • The pulp is found in a canal that runs through the center of the hard tissue on the inside of the tooth (dentin).
  • The pulp extends from the pulp chamber in the crown down through the root canal to the tip of the root in the jaw bone.
  • A tooth has only one pulp chamber but may have more than one root and several root canals.
  • If pulp becomes damaged through injury or disease and cannot repair itself, bacteria and their products can leak into the pulp and cause the pulp to die. İf a root canal procedure is not performed,an abscess can form at the tip of the root and cause considerable pain. Even if there is no pain, bone anchoring the tooth in the jaw can be damaged. Without treatment, the tooth may have to be extracted.

 

WHAT TO EXPECT

Here is what you can expect when you Schedule a root canal treatment. On the initial visit:

 

  • Local anestheticusually is given, to maintain patient comfort.
  • The affected tooth is isolated from saliva.
  • An opening is made through the crown of the tooth. The pulp is removed,and then the root is cleaned and shaped. Medication may be added to pulp chamber and root canals to help eliminate bacteria.
  • A temporary filling is placed in the crown opening to keep saliva out. Antibiotics may be prescribed if an infection is present and has spread beyond the end of the root(s)
    On the next visit:
  • The temporary filling is removed.
  • The root canal is filled and permanently sealed( a metal or plastic may be placed in the root canal for structural support.)
  • If needed a crown can be placed on the tooth. Crowns are made from a variety of materials,depending on the location of the tooth, the color of the tooth and the amount of natural tooth remaining. Discuss with your dentist which option is best for you.


THE REST IS UP TO YOU

 In the past, injured or diseased teeth frequently had to be removed. Today, they often can be saved through endodontic treatment. Also known as a root canal treatment ,this procedure may be performed by a general dentist. More than one office visit usually is required.


Periodontal Diseases

What are periodontal diseases?

The word “periodontal” literally means “around the tooth.” Periodontal diseases are bacterial gum infections that destroy the gums and supporting bone that hold your teeth in your mouth. Periodontal diseases can affect one tooth or many teeth. many teeth. The main cause of periodontal diseases is bacterial plaque, a plaque is not removed, it can turn into a hard substance called calculus or tartar in less than two days. Tartar is so hard it can only be removed by an oral health professional, such as a dentist or dental hygienist. The bacteria in plaque infect the gums, and release poisons that cause redness and inflammation (irritation). The inflammation and the poisons themselves cause destruction of the tissues that support the teeth, including the bone. When this happens, the gums separate microscopically from the teeth, forming pockets that fill with even more plaque causing even more infection..


 

Periodontal diseases are multi-factorial
This means that there is not just one cause of periodontal diseases but of rather multiple factors that can affect the health your gums.

  • GENETICS and family history of periodontal diseases indicate a greater likelihood of developing these diseases.
  • TOBACCO use significantly increases the risk of developing periodontal diseases and can negatively affect treatment.
  • MEDICATIONS such as oral contraceptives, antidepressants and certain heart medicine, can affect oral health.
  • HORMONAL CHANGES during pregnancy, puberty and menopause can cause the gums to become red, tender and bleed easily.
  • STRESS can make it more difficult for the body to fight off infection, including periodontal diseases
  • DESTRUCTIVE HABITS such as improper oral hygiene technique, oral piercing, drug or alcohol abuse can affect periodontal health.
  • POOR NUTRITION can make it harder for the body to fight off infection.
  • SYSTEMIC DISEASES that interfere with the body’s immune system may worsen the condition of the gums and supporting bone.


 

                 Gingivitis The results of treating periodontal destruction and bone loss suffered gum disease(periodontitis)

 
What are the signs of periodontal diseases?

  • Periodontal diseases are often silent meaning that symptoms. Some people may have periodontitis and not experience any symptoms and be unaware that they have disease. Common symptoms and signs of periodontal diseases include:

    • Red, Swollen Or Tender Gums
    • Bleedıng Whıle Brushıng Or Flossıng
    • Gums Pullıng Away From The Teeth Makıng Teeth Appear Longer
    • Loose Or Separatıng Teeth
    • Pus Between The Gum And Tooth
    • Persıstent Bad Breath
    • A Change In The Way Your Teeth  Fıt Together When You Bıte
    • A Change In The Fıt Of Partıal Dentures


    How are periodontal diseases treated?

    Once your periodontal health has been evaluated, your periodontist will work with you to determine the best treatment options to control your disease and bring you back to health. Treatment can vary depending on how far the disease has progressed. If diagnosed and treated in the early stages, simple non-surgical periodontal therapy may be sufficient. If periodontitis has advanced to the point where the periodontal pockets are deep and significant amounts of bone are lost, surgical therapy may be necessary. Once periodontitis has been controlled, patients will require ongoing periodontal maintenance procedures to sustain health. This ongoing phase of treatment will allow your periodontist to assess your periodontal health and make sure that your infection stays under control or remains eliminated. During these re-evaluation appointments, your mouth will be examined, new calculus and plaque will be removed and, if necessary, your teeth will be polished and your bite will be checked. Periodontal diseases are chronic diseases, just like diabetes. Without careful, ongoing treatment, periodontal diseases can and often do recur.

    How can the periodontal diseases be prevented?

    Good oral hygiene and professional care are the keys to keeping your teeth for a lifetime. The best way to prevent periodontal diseases and tooth decay is to remove the bacterial plaque by thorough brushing and flossing every day. Good oral hygiene habits will help keep the formation of dental tartar to a minimum. Regular dental visits that include a periodontal examination are also important to detect any changes in periodontal health and, if necessary, to remove hardened tartar in places that your toothbrush and floss may have missed. A Professional cleaning (often called a prophylaxis) at least twice a year is recommended for patients with good periodontal health. If you have had any form of the periodontal diseases, you may need professional maintenance more frequently. Congratulations on taking the first step to achieving periodontal health! Preventing and/or controlling periodontal diseases is a worthwhile commitment that will keep you smiling for life.

Oral Diagnosis & Dental X Rays
Periapical X-ray Case

DENTAL X RAYS
Dental X-rays are pictures of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues around them to help find problems with the teeth, mouth, and jaw. X-ray pictures can show cavities, hidden dental structures (such as wisdom teeth), and bone loss that cannot be seen during a visual examination. Dental X-rays may also be done as follow-up after dental treatments.

The following types of dental X-rays are commonly used. The X-rays use small amounts of radiation.

 Bitewing X-rays show the upper and lower back teeth and how the teeth touch each other in a single view. These X-rays are used to check for decay between the teeth and to show how well the upper and lower teeth line up. They also show bone loss when severe gum disease or a dental infection is present.
 Periapical X-rays show the entire tooth, from the exposed crown to the end of the root and the bones that support the tooth. These X-rays are used to find dental problems below the gum line or in the jaw, such as impacted teeth, abscesses, cysts, tumors, and bone changes linked to some diseases.
 Occlusal X-rays show the roof or floor of the mouth and are used to find extra teeth, teeth that have not yet broken through the gums, jaw fractures, a cleft in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate), cysts, abscesses, or growths. Occlusal X-rays may also be used to find a foreign object.
 Panoramic X-rays show a broad view of the jaws, teeth, sinuses, nasal area, and temporomandibular (jaw) joints. These X-rays do not find cavities. These X-rays do show problems such as impacted teeth, bone abnormalities, cysts, solid growths (tumors), infections, and fractures.
• Digital X-ray is a new method being used in some dental offices. A small sensor unit sends pictures to a computer to be recorded and saved.
• Cephalometric X-ray: This side view of the head, used most commonly for orthodontic determinations of treatment. The soft tissues of the face are specially enhanced so as to be able to determine the changes to profile that orthodontic therapy will alter.

Panoramic X-ray Case

A full-mouth series of periapical X-rays (about 14 to 21 X-ray films) are most often done during a person's first visit to the dentist. Bitewing X-rays are used during checkups to look for tooth decay. Panoramic X-rays may be used occasionally. Dental X-rays are scheduled when you need them based on your age, risk for disease, and signs of disease.

Why It Is Done
Dental X-rays are done to:
• Find problems in the mouth such as tooth decay, damage to the bones supporting the teeth, and dental injuries (such as broken tooth roots). Dental X-rays are often done to find these problems early, before any symptoms are present.
• Find teeth that are not in the right place or do not break through the gum properly. Teeth that are too crowded to break through the gums are called impacted.
• Find cysts, solid growths (tumors), or abscesses.
• Check for the location of permanent teeth growing in the jaw in children who still have their primary (or baby) teeth.
• Plan treatment for large or extensive cavities, root canal surgery, placement of dental implants, and difficult tooth removals.
• Plan treatment of teeth that are not lined up straight (orthodontic treatment).

Without X-rays, dentists may miss the early stages of decay between teeth. Dental X-rays are pictures of the teeth, bones, and soft tissues around them to help find problems with the teeth, mouth, and jaw. Your dentist can talk to you about your X-rays right after they are done.